UNFPA Mongolia’s work is guided by the Global Sustainable Development Goals, the UNFPA’s corporate Strategic Plan and in the directives set forth by the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD).
A) SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
By 2015, efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), set by governments around the world at the end of the 20th century, had built a path for common targets for developing countries to eradicate poverty, safeguard human rights, and enhance human security.
On September 25 of the same year, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted by countries, a set of new goals to continue the drive to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all as part of the new sustainable development agenda. Each goal has specific targets to be achieved over the next 15 years.
In the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, the preamble of the General Assembly resolution states: “This Agenda is a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity. It also seeks to strengthen universal peace in larger freedom. We recognize that eradicating poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty, is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development. All countries and all stakeholders, acting in collaborative partnership, will implement this plan. We are resolved to free the human race from the tyranny of poverty and want and to heal and secure our planet. We are determined to take the bold and transformative steps which are urgently needed to shift the world on to a sustainable and resilient path. As we embark on this collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind.”
It continues: “The 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 targets which we are announcing today demonstrate the scale and ambition of this new universal Agenda. They seek to build on the Millennium Development Goals and complete what they did not achieve. They seek to realize the human rights of all and to achieve gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls. They are integrated and indivisible and balance the three dimensions of sustainable development: the economic, social and environmental. The Goals and targets will stimulate action over the next 15 years in areas of critical importance for humanity and the planet.”
UNFPA and the SDGs
Each specialized UN agency has a strategic focus to help achieve the SDGs. UNFPA is the lead UN agency with the mission of delivering a world where every pregnancy is wanted, every childbirth is safe and every young person's potential is fulfilled. Since its beginnings in 1969, UNFPA helped half the number – and rate – of women dying from complications of pregnancy or childbirth. Families are smaller and healthier. Young people are more connected and empowered than ever before. But as there are still “too many left behind”, UNFPA continues to pursue in over 150 countries adhering to its mandate.
While UNFPA’s mandate supports the achievement specifically of SDG 3 - Good Health and Well-being and SDG 5-Gender Equality, collectively our work in reproductive health and rights, women's empowerment and population issues contributes to the achievement of other SDGs. Ensuring the sexual and reproductive health of women and girls including ensuring their right to family planning, and creating opportunities for young people to achieve their full potential as productive future citizens of the world are at the core of achieving SDG 1 - No Poverty. Working to provide Life Skills Education training especially to marginalized and disenfranchised youth are part of achieving SDG 4 - Quality Education. Creating legal and public environments receptive to the elimination of gender inequality, including the eradication of gender-based violence as well as legislation truly representative of the world’s young people and their needs contributes to the achievement of SDG 16 - Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions. And finally, working with governments, the private sector, international multilateral organizations, NGOs and CSOs is the embodiment of achieving SDG 17 - Partnerships for the Goals.
Mongolia and the SDGs
Mongolia had previously accepted the Millennium Development Declaration with appreciation and committed to implementing the MDGs to meet the country’s specific needs and priorities. Notably, it was one of only 9 countries in the world that achieved and exceeded its target on reducing Maternal Mortality, effectively achieving safer births and reducing maternal deaths by 2/3.
In February 2016, Mongolia demonstrated its commitment to achieving the SDGs through the adoption of the “Sustainable Development Vision 2030” by the Mongolian Parliament. This effectively localized the SDGs and imbedded them into the national development strategy for the next 15 years. In September 2016, the new Government Action Plan was adopted, centering on SDGs and the Sustainable Development Vision document.
B) UNFPA’s Global Strategic Plan
UNFPA is primarily guided by the 1994 Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Following that, a strategic plan was developed to guide UNFPA through 2011 in all aspects of work at all levels. The plan's title, "Accelerating Progress and National Ownership of the ICPD Programme of Action," provides the overall framework for guiding UNFPA support to programme countries to achieve their nationally owned development objectives in three interrelated areas of population and development, sexual and reproductive health and rights, and gender equality. The strategic direction focused on supporting national ownership, national leadership and capacity development as well as advocacy and partnership development for positioning the agenda of the ICPD.
The ICPD Beyond 2014 Global Report, released in February 2014, measures the progress that has been made and the significant work that remains to be done. The actions and recommendations identified in the report are important for the achievement of the goals of the ICPD Programme of Action and its linkage with the post-2015 development agenda.
Through a clear commitment to integrated development conveyed in the political declaration, the 2030 Agenda reaffirms the vision of the ICPD POA that development represents the expansion of multiple reinforcing opportunities for a given person across their life course, demanding simultaneous and integrated investments in numerous sectors. Goals and targets to advance these aspirations converge across the ICPD POA, the framework of Actions for the follow-up to ICPD beyond 2014, recent regional development agendas, as well as the 2030 Agenda.
Below are some clear examples of interlinkages between the SDGs and the ICPD:
Goal 1: the focus of the ICPD on poverty reduction and the wide range of linkages between population and development and poverty;
Goal 3: its inclusion of universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services, maternal health, HIVAIDS and information and education on SRH;
Goal 4: addressing skills education on gender equality and human rights, citizenship and peace;
Goal 5: targets on discrimination against women and girls, gender-based violence, harmful practices including child, early and forced marriage and FGM, of course universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights;
Goal 8: critical for youth employment and for realizing the demographic dividend;
Goal 10: addressing inequalities and discrimination including for migrants;
Goal 11: urbanization as a priority population dynamic, and the importance of inclusive urbanization for a wide range of ICPD objectives, as well as targets on access to services;
Goal 16: ensuring participation and safety from violence; and
Goal 17: including strong data systems as a central part of means of implementation, as well as disaggregation of data to identify and support those who are often left behind.
Empowering individuals and governments
UNFPA’s work is based on human rights, which entails educating individuals and communities, as well as empowering governments to fulfill these rights. UNFPA focuses on women and young people, because they are often those whose rights go unfulfilled.
Advocate for action
UNFPA amplifies its impact by empowering governments to fulfill their responsibility to women and young people by providing data and analysis to help governments asses progress, by mobilizing resources and expertise, by advocating directly with government officials or in public forums and through training and monitoring. UNFPA participates in regional and international meetings and forums that enhance knowledge about and commitment to our issues. Since 1978, UNFPA has published an annual flagship report - the State of World Population - to give wider visibility to critical and emerging issues.
UNFPA partners with civil society, academic institutions and the private sector in order to multiply its reach and enhance its scope. In 2013, it formed a Civil Society Advisory Panel to encourage dialogue with organizations, networks and partners on programming and policies. UNFPA also works regularly with parliamentarians to review progress in implementing the ICPD Programme of Action.Increasingly and also in light of SDGs, UNFPA partners with private sector entities also within the framework of the UN Global Compact. In Mongolia, partnerships have been formed, for instance, with Oyu Tolgoi on youth development, and Rio Tinto is part of the Global Compact. Also MoU has been signed between UNFPA Mongolia and Junior Chamber International (JCI) Mongolia on youth development.
C) International Conference on Population and Development – ICPD
The International Conference on Population and Development took place in 1994, the milestone event that helped define the direction of world in the areas of population and development as well as in women’s rights. At the conference, the world agreed that population is not about numbers, but about people. Implicit in this rights-based approach is the idea that every person counts. The conference moreover made clear that empowerment of women is not simply an end in itself, but also a step towards eradicating poverty and stabilizing population growth. Reproductive health and rights are cornerstones of women's empowerment.
Programme of Action
At the conference, 179 countries adopted a 20-year Programme of Action, which focused on individuals' needs and rights, rather than on achieving demographic targets. The recommendations and commitments of Cairo were strengthened and updated at the ICPD five-year review. Concrete goals include providing universal education; reducing infant, child and maternal mortality; ensuring universal access by 2015 to reproductive health care, including family planning, assisted childbirth and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV.
Mongolia’s participation in ICPD
Representatives of the government of Mongolia participated in the conference and afterwards the government developed a formal population policy for Mongolia reflecting the Cairo agreements. In addition, the National Reproductive Health Programmes have been developed and implemented. At regional level, Mongolia also played a critical role at the regional Asia-Pacific Population Conferences, and following the Conference of 2013, Mongolia signed the Ulaanbaatar Declaration to further advance population and development issues.
International Conference on Population and Development - ICPD
Programme of Action
Mongolia's participation in ICPD
ICPD + 15 - Because so many people are counting on us..
ICPD +15 in Mongolia